Glucose - urine
This is a test to measure the amount of glucose in urine.
Urine glucose is usually measured as a "spot test" with a dipstick containing a color-sensitive pad. This pad is saturated with specific chemicals that react with glucose. The resulting color indicates the glucose concentration.
For infants, thoroughly wash the area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and place it on your infant. For males, the entire penis can be placed in the bag and the adhesive attached to the skin. For females, the bag is placed over the labia.
Place a diaper over the infant (bag and all). The infant should be checked frequently and the bag changed after the infant has urinated into the bag. For active infants, this procedure may take a couple of attempts. The collected urine is drained into the container for transport to the laboratory.
Deliver it to the laboratory or your health care provider as soon as possible.
The health care provider should be consulted if drugs are being taken that may affect test results (see special considerations).
Discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test (see Special Considerations).
No special preparation is necessary for this test, but if the collection is being taken from an infant, a couple of extra collection bags may be necessary.
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
This test is most commonly used to screen for possible diabetes.
Most dietary carbohydrates end up as glucose in the blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body. Some cells (for example, brain and red blood cells) are almost totally dependent on blood glucose as a source of energy.
The brain, in fact, requires that glucose concentrations in the blood remain within a certain range in order to function normally. Concentrations less than about 30 mg/dl can produce confusion or unconsciousness. High glucose concentrations (greater than 300 mg/dl) may cause similar symptoms if associated with dehydration, infection, or acidosis.
The major hormone regulating glucose concentration in the body is insulin (although other hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol also affect it). Glucose levels are measured most commonly to diagnose diabetes, or to monitor how well diabetes is being controlled.
Diabetes is a very common disease -- affecting about 2% of the general population. Diabetes results from deficient insulin or decreased sensitivity to insulin.
The results of a urine glucose test are also abnormal in cases of renal glycosuria. This is a kidney disease where glucose leaks into the urine even when blood glucose levels are normal.
Glucose is not usually found in urine. If it is, further testing is warranted.
Abnormal results producing greater-than-normal levels may indicate:
- Diabetes mellitus
- Renal Glycosuria. This may be an isolated abnormality or occur in the context of other kidney diseases like Fanconi's Syndrome.
There are no risks.
Drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements include aminosalicylic acid, cephalosporins, chloral hydrate, chloramphenicol, dextrothyroxine, diazoxide, diuretics (loop and thiazides), estrogens, ifosfamide, isoniazid, levodopa, lithium, nafcillin, nalidixic acid, and nicotinic acid (large doses).
Drugs that may give false positive results with Clinitest, but not with Clinistix or Tes-tape, include acetylsalicylic acid, aminosalicylic acid, ascorbic acid, cephalothin, chloral hydrate, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfonamides.
Drugs that may give false negative results are ascorbic acid (using Clinistix, Tes-tape), levodopa (using Clinistix), and phenothiazines (using Clinistix, Tes-tape).
Reviewed By: Charles Silberberg, DO, Private Practice specializing in Nephrology, affiliated with New York Medical College, Division of Nephrology, Valhalla, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.